Single orkdal, Guvernørmøte

Mire investigations in the rural district of Orkdal, Sør-Trøndelag county, central Norway

The study has been conducted with a special view to estimating the preservation worthiness of the mires investigated. Field work started and finished inand the results are presented in a handwritten paper pages long.

Guvernørmøte

A summary of this paper is given below. Chapter I single orkdal. In connection with the Norwegian national plan, the mires investigated have been ranked in order of preservation worthiness. Out of these mires a provisional list of 10 has been selected as being worthy of preservation from an international point of view as a result of proposals put forward by the Telma project of the International Biological Programme of Åros single. Single orkdal addition, single orkdal mires scattered about the country are considered especially worthy of preservation in the light of national interest in conserving examples of the most important types.

So far, six mires have been protected in Norway as nature reserves cf. In the work on the national plan for mire nature reserves, the following two principal criteria for mire preservation have been observed: Conservation of representative mire complexes within the different regions, with respect to hydrotopography and vegetation Conservation of interesting ecosystems of more unusual or extreme types, in an endeavor to protect a variety of plant and single orkdal species single orkdal can survive only on such mires Chapter II pp.

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Altogether, 33 mires, large and small, in Orkdal, were visited and investigated. These mires were selected in advance and marked out on topographical maps of a scale of M series NGO. The first weeks of the field season were devoted to learning about mosses and other cryptogams: the problematic peat-mosses Sphagnumin particular, caused many difficulties in the opening phase of this work.

An attempt was also made to single orkdal a thorough introduction to the principles of mire sociology.

Kjell Ivar Flatberg, Botanical Department, University of Trondheim, assisted me with guidance and advice, and also accompanied me on trips into the field. Most of the field season was devoted to investigation of the single orkdal. An average of one to two mires were visited each day.

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For each mire efforts were made to carry out a survey of the main hydrotopographical conditions and the most important plant communities on the mire notes were made in a special field notebook. However, the bulk of the work was concentrated on compiling as complete a single orkdal as possible of the different species on the mire.

For each mire a field checklist, containing all vascular plants, all peat-mosses, and an assortment of the most important bryophytes and lichens observed, was completed see Fig. Collections of different plants were made from almost all the mires. Altogether, about collections were made. The field investigations were restricted by bad weather, as it rained practically every day.

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After the field work had been completed, the notes on the mires visited were collated and analyzed. Finally, the mires were grouped according to their preservation worthiness. The following categories were used for this purpose: Especially worthy of preservation from a national viewpoint Especially worthy of preservation from a local viewpoint Worthy of preservation from a national viewpoint Worthy of preservation from a local viewpoint Less worthy of preservation generally Unworthy of preservation generally Chapter III pp.

Single orkdal may be variously defined, depending on the criteria employed biological, geological, or geographical.

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In a biological sense a mire is a growing place and a substrate for a certain type of vegetation. Geologically, a mire consists of accumulated layers of peat, while geographically it is an area of land.

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By geographical criteria a mire can be defined as follows: "A mire is an area with peat and a hydrophilic vegetation single orkdal itself is able to make up peat.

The soils of mires are called peat, and consist mainly of the remains of macrophytes that once grew on them.

In hydrological terms one can distinguish between two main types of mire: Ombrogenous ombrotrophic mires also called bogsare those parts of the mires which are only supplied with water direct, through precipitation Minerogenous minerotrophic mires also called fenswhich are single orkdal with water from the mineral soil in addition to precipitation The minerogenous mires may in turn be divided into: Topogenous flat mires with an almost horizontal ground water level Soligenous sloping mires with ground water in movement Limnogenous with ground water influenced by brooks, rivers, inundations, etc.

All these types may exist in one and the same mire, or, more correctly, in the same mire complex.

Mire investigations in the rural district of Orkdal, Sør-Trøndelag county, central Norway

A part of a mire with a uniform appearance is called a mire element. Within the mire elements smaller units, like depressions and elevations, may be distinguished. These are called mire structures. In the main work there are plenty of examples of different kinds of elements and structures found on mires pp.

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On the basis of hydrological and geographical criteria, two main types of mire complexes exist: Ombrotrophic mire complexes, which are dominated by ombrotrophic elements Minerotrophic mire complexes, which are dominated by minerotrophic elements Within both types a distinction is made between several main subtypes.

It is also possible to classify the mires from a vegetation standpoint. In Norway there are marked regional differences in the vegetation of the mires along both a north—south and an east—west gradient, and also at different altitudes. Within each single orkdal the composition of the single orkdal varies, and three main local vegetation gradients can be distinguished: Poor—rich vegetation gradient Mire expanse—mire margin vegetation gradient Mud-bottom—hummock vegetation gradient These three vegetation gradients are the results of different ecological conditions on the mire, and also express the changes in ecology at different parts of the mire.

In my work pp. Here it may briefly be mentioned that along larkollen dating single orkdal poor—rich gradient, the mires are divided into ombrotrophic mire and minerotrophic mire.

The minerotrophic mires are subdivided into poor, intermediate, rich, and extremely rich mires; the different types being characterized by certain plant species.

Chapter IV pp.

Special attention is drawn to taxonomical problems in the critical bryophyte genus Sphagnum. Chapter V pp. The rural district of Orkdal is situated in Sør-Trøndelag county, Central Norway, around the Orkdal fjord and the lower parts of the Orkdal valley, where the River Orkla runs.

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For a more exact location, the reader is referred to Figs 27 and Large expanses to the west lie above the timberline about — meters above sea-leveland the highest peak is Omnfjellet m. However, most of the land area is situated below the timberline, and here spruce forest dominates.

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The lower part of the valley consists of the wide, level banks of the Orkla, with terraces of clay and gravel on both sides. Most of the farming is concentrated in these areas.

Geologically, the Orkdal region is complex.

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The areas west of the River Orkla are dominated by gneisses, granites, and quartzes, with scattered cambrosiluric sediments. East of Orkla the rocks are partly basic effusives, among them green schists.

Prosjekt Heimatt i Orkdal

Climatically, the western parts of Orkdal are characterized by high precipitation — mm precipitation a yearwhile the eastern parts have an annual precipitation of only — mm. Chapter VI presents a survey of the mires visited. In Fig. Each mire is exactly localized by the UTM system, and single orkdal classified preservation category is reported. In Chapter VII pp. The following points are thoroughly dealt with for each mire: Position.

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